This method involves strengthening the ground using high deformation modulus CSC® (Controlled Stiffness Column) concrete displacement columns.

Controlled Stiffness Columns CSC® illustration

Common uses

Industrial and commercial buildings
Embankments for road and rail
Tanks and terminals
Residential and public buildings
Public buildings
Industrial flooring
Wind turbines


The columns are made through a compressible substrate up to load-bearing layers to reduce settling and increase load-bearing capacity.

The effectiveness of ground improvement depends on the stiffness relationship between the soil and columns. Load from the structure is transferred to the ground and columns through a load transfer platform or rigid foundation.

After the working platform is prepared, the rig is moved into place. Generally a displacement auger or vibrated tube is used to penetrate down to the designed depth. Concrete is pumped as the tool is pulled upwards.

The concrete flows out of the tube and supports the bore, and after hardening forms the core of the column.

If the concrete is fresh, cutting of column heads is done mechanically. Once the concrete has hardened, we do it by a hand.


Allows the use of shallow foundations to support structures on compressible soils1
Increases the bearing capacity of weak soils, even for high loads
Reduces settlements very efficiently (with a reduction factor in the range of three to eight)
Can be used in all construction sectors and applied for most types of structures and soil types
Construction works can, in most cases, start immediately after ground improvement
Minimal spoil

Quality assurance

Rigid inclusions elements are controlled before, during and after installation to ensure the highest quality of solution. A variety of tests can be carried out including:

  • Trial fields for verifying columns production parameters
  • Digital recording and logging of the execution parameters
  • Column integrity test, column load test, column material compressive strength tests, column diameter verification

The type and frequency of tests varies based on the size of the project and the geotechnical context.